To date, the list of Soviet and Russian cosmonauts who participated in space flights, is listed 121 people. Including Vladimir Nikolayevich Dezhurov — a native of the small Mordovian village of Javas. In the list of Russian cosmonauts there are a lot of such people — people from small provincial villages. They were able to conquer outer space, regardless of origin, social status and other factors of little significance on the scale of the universe. Today it is as difficult to become an astronaut as it was 50 years ago — the requirements and conditions for selecting the cruelest. But if you or your children are absolutely sure that you can not live without space, you will benefit from step-by-step instructions on the way to distant stars.
If the child raves about the cosmos from the youthful nails, then it is necessary to support his interest in obtaining practical knowledge. A good option — courses «Aerokvantum» in the children’s technopark «Quantorium.» About him we wrote in one of the past materials. «Quantorium» is a structural subdivision of the «Republican Center for Additional Education for Children». At the courses «Aeroquantum» schoolchildren master the management of aviation equipment on the simulator of the MIG, IL, including unmanned aerial vehicles, and also design, create and configure prototypes of the air vehicle. All this is useful if the child is determined to become an astronaut.
Short-term specialized training can be carried out outside the region. For example, in the children’s camp Zvezdny [VDN Orlyonok] in cooperation with the Cosmonaut Training Center named after Gagarin, a specialized shift «United Space» is being implemented. Also, with the mentioned Cosmonaut Training Center, there is a program «Weekend in Space», where children can come with their parents.
Do not forget that the cosmonaut’s profession makes high demands not only for the intellectual, but also for the physical, moral qualities of the individual. Future cosmonauts should have excellent health, be able to work in a team, be psychologically stable. It is not necessary to expose the child to excessive physical exertion, but it is necessary to direct it to the path of self-development and the formation of discipline.
The general school is successfully finished, and the dream to become an astronaut is still there? In this case, you need to choose the right further training option. It is important to understand that in Russia there are no special universities where «teach cosmonauts». But there are two main educational trajectories, potentially capable of leading to outer space.
The first way is the way of the pilot. And better — a military pilot. Flight specialties have always been a priority when selecting cosmonauts. What can I say, if Yuri Gagarin himself began to ascend to the stars from the aviation school. The main skill of a pilot of civil or military aviation — the ability to work in conditions of combined operation — is extremely important for the pilot-cosmonaut. To enter the flight school, it is necessary, first, to be physically healthy in order to meet the criteria of a medical-flight expert commission, and, secondly, to be mentally ready to move to another region. There are no flying schools in Mordovia, the nearest ones are UI GA in Ulyanovsk and the higher military aviation school of pilots in Syzran.
The second way is to enter a technical higher educational institution, which prepares engineers for the rocket and space industry. For example, Roskosmos actively cooperates with the MAI, MSTU. Bauman, MIPT and the Faculty of Space Studies of Moscow State University. After graduating from a technical college, it is recommended to go to work for companies involved in the creation of manned space systems.
Theoretically you can get into cosmonauts having absolutely any specialty. Since 2012 Roskosmos has been holding open competitions for recruiting a cosmonaut squad, so that the chance to become an astronaut is not only among military pilots and personnel of the rocket and space industry. However, engineering and flight specialties are still a priority.
SELECTION TO COSMONAUTS
You have successfully graduated from high school, high school, you have the necessary practical and theoretical skills, good health, excellent physical training, you are not yet 35 years old, and the dream to fly to space is still with you? Then dare. The cosmonaut training center and Roskosmos, with a certain periodicity, conduct new sets in the coveted detachment of the elect.
On the website of the Cosmonaut Training Center, you can find a list of the necessary documents that should be sent by mail to Star City with a note «To the Commission for the Selection of Candidates for Cosmonauts». There are a lot of documents: both personal and medical. Please also note that you must have a certificate of absence of contra-indications to work with information that constitutes a state secret.
If there are no problems at this stage, then you will be invited to a personal interview and will be offered entrance tests. In the center of preparation of the applicant waiting for examinations on special simulators: the Coriolis acceleration chair, a centrifuge, a pressure chamber. Also, a potential cosmonaut will be offered to study one of the on-board systems of the Soyuz spacecraft or the International Space Station. Thus, the commission will assess the ability to absorb new material in a short time.
Even if everything goes well, then no one will appoint you right away as an astronaut. The conditional status of the «Candidate for Candidates» can be changed to the official status of «candidate for Cosmonaut Cosmonauts of Roscosmos». Such decision is made by [or does not take] an interdepartmental commission. In the case of a successful cosmonaut candidate, two years of general space training are awaited, which includes: the constant study of the design and on-board systems of spacecraft and station modules, the pressure chamber test, the centrifuge and the hydrolaboratory, the IL-76 MDK airplane flight, the parachute preparation. The result is the State Exam and the coveted title «test cosmonaut» [in case of successful passing the exam].
But this is not the final. Two more years cosmonauts-testers train in groups [in addition about 150 examinations, tests and tests). Finally, if the cosmonaut is assigned to the crew, it will take another 18 to 24 months to prepare for the first flight under a specific program.
Thus, from the first letter to the Cosmonaut Training Center before the first flight into space, it takes, as a rule, 6-8 years of exhausting training and studying the huge layers of theory. But the dream to go to space is worth it.